Monday, February 24, 2020
Martin Luther the Monk - Essay Example Martin Luther is one of the most famous Christian religious preachers in the history. He was born at Eislenben in the year 1483. In Mansfeld, Martin LutherÃ¢â¬â¢s father, HanÃ¢â¬â¢s Luther served as a leaseholder of the smelters and several copper mines. Hans Luther worked very hard to earn his family a good standard of living and he wanted Martin Luther to become a lawyer by profession. In order to accomplish this, he first sent Martin Luther to the Mansfeld based Latin schools. After that, Martin Luther gained education in Madgeburg in the year 1497 followed by Eisenach in 1498. By the year 1501, Martin Luther had turned seventeen years old. That was when he joined the University of Erfurt which was more of a whorehouse and a beerhouse than a university. In 1505, Martin Luther gained the postgraduate degree. Contrary to his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s dream of seeing Martin Luther as a lawyer, Martin wanted to study the Scriptures. In order to achieve that, Martin Luther went to the August inian canons, where he spent about three years. He was proclaimed to be a priest in the year 1507. Martin Luther offered lectures on the Scriptures and philosophy at the University of Wittenberg. Over a very short period of time, Martin Luther became a very influential and inspiring preacher. Martin Luther commenced the exploration of evangelical perfection and tried to comply with the Augustinian orderÃ¢â¬â¢s rule, but it did not take him long to realize that there were a lot of doubts and uncertainties in it. Theological problems enhanced his spiritual complexities which particularly included the message of grace and the ambiguities in nature of indulgences. Ã¢â¬Å"Luther had entered on the search for evangelical perfection with serious zeal and sought exactly to fulfill the rule of the Augustinian order, but he soon found himself struggling against uncertainties and doubtsÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"Martin LutherÃ¢â¬ ). Subjects included in the course of biblical exegesis that he taught at the University of Wittenberg included Romans, Psalms and Galatians. Martin Luther served as the professor at this university between 1513 and 1518. His courses of lectures speak of his mindÃ¢â¬â¢s maturity and richness. He was appointed as the preacher in the Parish Church in 1514. The pul pit of this church was essentially a locus of the preaching ministry. Martin Luther preached the Scriptures to the common people and made every possible effort to make them analyze their personal lives in context of the religious Scriptures. During this, Martin Luther noticed many things that were inappropriate with his Church as well as with the whole world. Ã¢â¬Å"[T]he Roman Church has always maintained the true faith, and that it is necessary for all Christians to be in unity of faith with herÃ¢â¬ (Luther cited in Pastor). Therefore, on 31 October 1517, Martin Luther collected Ninety-Five Theses to elicit the truth and attached them to the All SaintsÃ¢â¬â¢ ChurchÃ¢â¬â¢s door in Wittenberg. This date is known as the All SaintsÃ¢â¬â¢ DayÃ¢â¬â¢s eve. Ã¢â¬Å"Martin Luther, Doctor, of the Order of Monks at Wittenberg, desire to testify publicly that certain propositions against pontifical indulgences, as they call them, have been put forth by meÃ¢â¬ (Machiavelli and Mor e 273). Although those theses tended to criticize the papal policy, yet they never refuted the papal prerogative. They also did not challenge the doctrine of purgatory much. However, those theses emphasized upon the intrinsic spirituality of the Christian faith. Martin Luther attempted to forward the copies of those theses to his own bishop as well as the Archbishop of Mainz, but the process was interrupted by the intervention of the printing press. In spite of the effort of the printing press to hinder the process, numerous copies of the theses got spread which made an otherwise local issue an issue of huge significance and controversy to be discussed among expanding circles. One of the most
Friday, February 7, 2020
Whether the rise of China is a threat to Asian stability - Essay Example command of indicators that not only include measurable wealth (GDP) and military spending, but a host of factors that basically defines a stateÃ¢â¬â¢s reflective position beyond its borders. That the Asia-Pacific is undergoing tectonic shifts in terms of the elements of hard power in now a forgone conclusion; China overtook Japan in 2010 to become AsiaÃ¢â¬â¢s largest economy, only second to the United States globally in terms of gross domestic product (GDP), and in the process, taking advantage of the lattersÃ¢â¬â¢ woes in the wake of a deadly financial crisis to extend its influence in the neighboring nationsÃ¢â¬â¢ growth momentum. The increasing influence of China in this region, not to mention its strategic positioning as a major international actor, coupled with its gradual move towards greater power status, a puzzle widely theorized as the Ã¢â¬Å"China ThreatÃ¢â¬ with uncertain predictions, none of which has ever materialized, forms the basis of response herein. All nations pursue their interests of security and prosperity within a context of political diplomacy that ropes in economic, and, if need be, military forces as directed by a history that underpins national ethos and the existing relationships with states in question (Lemke, Douglas, and Suzanne Warner 237). In the mix between the national ethos and political history are the personalities of leaders in power and their respective abilities to further the two elements to certain commensurate heights. As the adage goes, nations only have permanent interests. Accordingly, friendly nations may turn hostile to a neighbor with weird interests, bringing together former enemies to secure a common interest; a grim picture captured in literary analysis in the context of an increasingly influential China in the Asian power politics during the past quarter century (Kaplan 3). Indeed as expected, the collapse of the Soviet Empire, marking the end of the cold war, heralded an era of fractured glo bal power structure, hitherto
Wednesday, January 29, 2020
Humanitarian Intervention Essay By way of analogy, one should think of the world as a large neighborhood where people live and go about their business. Naturally, whenever one would ask for help, they would approach their neighbor for it and it is up to the latter to render that help or not if it is within their capacity to provide that help. The issue here now is what if help is not asked for and yet a neighbor sees trouble. Would he let them be or get involved to address the issue? Viewing it from a bigger picture, the world stage also faces this kind of problem. There are states that also face a similar situation. The challenge now is, should other states intervene even if they are not Ã¢â¬Å"invited? Ã¢â¬ This is the dilemma facing members of the international community today and even the United Nations, supposedly the first line of defense and the court of last resort of states that are in danger of becoming failed states or where political instability is too much for national governments to handle on their own or they became repressive towards their own people that the latter have nowhere else to turn to. There are some states that want to intervene in the affairs of other states precisely for this reason, which is primarily to help, nothing more. But this would present a dilemma. Which is more important or carries more weight, (international) human rights, or (national) sovereignty? Is there a distinction between Ã¢â¬Å"humanitarian interventionÃ¢â¬ and imperialism? What could be well-meaning intervention to help the poor and oppressed people of a particular country could be viewed as an invasion or an encroachment or violation of sovereignty and thereby earn the condemnation of the rest of the international community. The issue now is if the intervention undertaken is legitimate. Legitimacy of actions is not definite and is subjective, depending on how one views it. The Following are cases of humanitarian interventions conducted in the past and how did the international community react to it: East Pakistan (Bangladesh) Ã¢â¬â 1971: When British India became independent from Britain in 1947, it had adverse consequences, independence also led to the partition of India which saw the creation of a separate Muslim state of Pakistan. Pakistan, in turn, was divided into West Pakistan, where the seat of government is situated and East Pakistan, located along Indias eastern border. These two states are separated by India. Furthermore, despite carrying the same name Ã¢â¬Å"Pakistan,Ã¢â¬ these two states are culturally different despite being Muslim, those in the east speak Bengali, a language that is related to that of the Indians. The east Pakistanis did not feel any cultural affinity with those from the west and they feel marginalized. Because of this Ã¢â¬Å"coldÃ¢â¬ treatment from the west, they began batting for autonomy led by the Awami League of Sheik Mujibur Rahman. The leaders in the west saw it as an act of secession and moved swiftly to suppress it through military intervention. What happened next was a virtual civil war as the East Pakistanis, or Bengalis resisted the West Pakistanis, seeing them more as invaders and the latter responded with severe repression that saw countless atrocities being committed. The matter was brought up the United Nations (UN) where the actions of Pakistan was condemned yet no severe action was taken as the UN Security Council was divided with the United States and China backing up Pakistan and the Soviet Union on Indias side. The partiality of the superpowers prevented any punitive measures taken against Pakistan. India had been covertly supporting Bengali resistance served as the latters staging area for attacks against Pakistani occupiers. This led Pakistan to believe India joined the battle and the Third India-Pakistan War broke out. Eventually, Indian forces prevailed. IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s victory also assured the independence of East Pakistan which was renamed Bangladesh (Wheeler, 2000, pp. 63-64). Somalia (1992-1993): UN involvement in this East African nation stemmed from the famine that has nearly devastated Somalia. This was further exacerbated by the increasing anarchy brought about by the lack of a central government and with competing warlords vying for control as civil war broke out in 1991. The UN organized a peacekeeping mission called United Nations Operation in Somalia (UNOSOM) calling for the establishment of a security force of 50 UN troops in Somalia to monitor the ceasefire. Despite the UNs efforts, the ceasefire was ignored by the warlords, especially Mohammed Farid Aidid. Fighting continued and further intensified, jeopardizing UN relief efforts as they were targeted for attacks as well. The harassment of UN personnel prompted the intervention of the United States in what became Operation Restore Hope to ensure the continuation of the relief efforts and what makes American presence different was that it was authorized to utilize all necessary means to ensure the protection of the relief efforts which it initially did, conducting proactive military operations against militias until October on 1993, following the Ã¢â¬Å"Blackhawk DownÃ¢â¬ incident in October of 1993, the Clinton Administration, in a knee-jerk reaction to the casualties incurred (18 US soldiers killed and one captured), ordered the pull out of US forces from Somalia (Wheeler, 2000, pp. 172-176). The absence of American military muscle also led to the pull out of UN forces from the region as well and Somalia is still what it was 10 years ago where lawlessness still prevailed and this was further evidenced by the proliferation of pirates along the Indian Ocean which used Somalia as the base of operations owing to the lawlessness there. Rwanda (1993-1994): In the case of Rwanda, ethic conflict broke out between the Hutus and Tutsis. The UN intervened through the creation of the United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR) on October of 1993 to oversee the peace efforts in the region. The biggest contributing countries along with Belgium were Ghana, Tunisia, Bangladesh, and Canada. In the latter part of 1993, both Hutus and Tutsis appeared to be honoring the Arusha Accords, and reaffirmed such commitment to creating a new, broad-based transitional government by the end of the year. However, things went sour following the downing of the aircraft carrying Rwandan President Habyarimana and Cyprien Ntarayima of Burundi. It inflamed hatred and a killing spree ensured. Among the first targets of the genocide were Prime Minister Agathe Uwilingiyimana and 10 Belgian members of UNAMIR after handing over their weapons to Rwandan government troops. In a knee-jerk reaction similar to what the Clinton Administration did following the international embarrassment the United States suffered in Somalia in 1993, Belgium pulled out its troops from UNAMIR and other contingents followed suit. UNAMIR was left with 270 soldiers supported by less than 200 local authorities. The UNAMIR did the best it could with what forces remained. As individuals and as a group, members of the UNAMIR forces did manage to save the lives of thousands of Tutsis in and around Kigali and the few areas of UN control. Despite their best efforts, to the eyes of the world, they appeared to be apathetic or indifferent, standing idly by as Hutus were murdering Tutsis on a larger scale. The French deployed troops following the outbreak of the genocide yet it was for the purpose of evacuating their embassy as well as several members of the late presidentÃ¢â¬â¢s cabinet (Wheeler, 2000, p. 219). The genocide eventually abated with the arrival of a multi-national force from several African states. Yugoslavia (1995-Present): Following the collapse of the communist regime in Yugoslavia, age-old ethnic hatreds reemerged as pre-World War I states began to come back into existence as the nation Josip Broz Tito once ruled disintegrated. This was very apparent in the hatred towards the local Muslim population, particularly by the (Bosnian) Serbs. There were eight UN PKOs in the former Yugoslavia and they were made up of over 20 member states. Despite signing a truce, the civil war resumed and it was the Bosnian Muslims, and later the Kosovars who bore the brunt of Serb brutality which was presided over by Yugoslav President Slobodan Milosevic and Serbian leader Radovan Karadic. They invoked nationalism to inflame the passions of the Serbs who then proceeded to conduct Ã¢â¬Å"ethnic cleansingÃ¢â¬ which was underscored by the massacre at Srebrenica in 1995 which was supposed to be a UN Ã¢â¬Å"safe areaÃ¢â¬ and this happened after Serb forces drove a UN peacekeeping contingent out when the latter could not defend themselves against a larger Serb force and had to pull out. In retaliation, there were some peacekeepers even held hostage by the Bosnian Muslims and used as human shields to force the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) into attacking the Serbs. Seeing the ineffectiveness of the UN PKO, NATO began to intervene to add more political muscle starting with air strikes to bring the Serbs back to the negotiating table and eventually deploying troops to enforce the peace in the troubled region as a Ã¢â¬Å"stabilization forceÃ¢â¬ and took it upon themselves to go after Serbian war criminals (Wheeler, 2000, p. 16). Analysis: Upon close analysis, all these situation involved humanitarian intervention which called for the deployment of a military force to make humanitarian relief efforts possible. Among the given cases, it would be nearly impossible to determine which is the least justified. If there needs to be one, it would have to be IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s intervention in PakistanÃ¢â¬â¢s civil war which became its war against Pakistan as well. It would be least justified if it is seen from a legal perspective. India was interfering in what seemed to be an internal dispute between Pakistan. Beyond the legal however, one has to take into consideration that India is flanked on both side by East (Bangladesh) and West Pakistan and strategically she would be in peril considering that her relationship with Pakistan is anything but cordial and as such would rather the face one opponent instead of two. Secondly, the Bengalis were closer to them than the Pakistanis despite being Muslim. Somalia, as well as RwandaÃ¢â¬â¢ would turn out the ones that badly need humanitarian intervention. Given the utter lawlessness and chaos that has visited the country, it appears that the Somalis and Rwandans could not seem to address their problems and this thereby necessitates humanitarian intervention given the fact its people are suffering from famine and genocide respectively. Aid could not get through to them since there is virtually no government there to bring order and it is the warlords who are in charge and they care about is power. After seeing the UN as weak in enforcing its will, the United States, under the first Bush Administration, took the lead in bringing order back into Somalia but unfortunately the Clinton Administration took a different approach especially after the Ã¢â¬Å"Blackhawk DownÃ¢â¬ incident. Instead of following through to bring Aidid to justice, they decided to pull out. The same thing can be said in Rwanda as well, especially after the murder of the Belgian peacekeepers. Putting them together, the west appeared to be somewhat unwilling to make sacrifices to help address the problems of the Somalis and Rwandans, especially after the deaths of their people. It is as though they felt Africans were not worth saving or dying for and this has sent a wrong message Ã¢â¬â the west is unwilling to sacrifice for Africans and this also contains racist undertones and has placed a sense of embarrassment to the west for their apparent apathy or Ã¢â¬Å"cowardiceÃ¢â¬ towards Africa. Yugoslavia proved to be the application of the lessons learned from Somalia and Rwanda as the Serbs went on an Ã¢â¬Å"ethnic cleansingÃ¢â¬ spree, killing Muslims. When news of the atrocities became known throughout the world, they took a stand and finally acted upon it with the deployment of NATO forces to enforce the peace but at the same time, operate with rules of engagement that would enable them to defend themselves appropriately while carrying out this vital mission. WheelerÃ¢â¬â¢s point is that moral considerations should be taken into account. It can be inferred in his work that human life is the most precious thing on the planet and these are wasted or sacrificed needlessly by their own people and government for the sake of power or out of spite. Governments are supposed to look out for their citizens and if they cannot do this, who can the people turn to? This is a symptom of a failed state and it should be the moral responsibility of the international community to help restore order. The problem with laws, both national and international is that it is not perfect. Just because things are put into law does not mean it is perfect and explicit. Laws are inherently implicit as loopholes will be found and used to get around it and this is what prevents humanitarian interventions from taking place or condemn those who do intervene. Nevertheless, Wheeler presents a valid point in emphasizing the moral factor which he feels, as well as most of the world probably feels as well that as a (global) community, Ã¢â¬Å"neighborsÃ¢â¬ should look out for each other as well because what may seem an internal matter might someday move to their doorstep someday. This has to be addressed the soonest to preserve the peace and order in the community.
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
Primitivism - A Tribal Religion "We regard them as the sons and daughters of the earth and sky, brothers and sisters of animals and plants, who live by natureÃ¢â¬â¢s ways and do not upset the delicate balances of their ecological zones; gentle hunting folk who are still in touch with the magic and myth that we ourselves so badly need" (Smith, 381). This quote from Huston Smith summarizes the Primitivism essence of its nature. Primitivism is an ancient religion, sometimes referred to as a tribal religion because groupings of its people were small in numbers. This religion continues today in parts of Africa, Australia, Southeast Asia, the Pacific Islands, Siberia, and Indians of North and South America. Primitivism is an oral religion, very few things were written down. Most of the writing was in the form of drawings and art. Being an exclusively oral society, the orality protected the memory of its practitioners making it possible to remember countless tales and stories to pass on to the next generation. The orality also enabled the capacity to sense the sacred through nonverbal channels. Tribal religions are deep-rooted in place as opposed to space. Space is abstract, but place is concrete. For example, a square foot in Florida is the same as a square foot in China; however Florida and China are two very different places. The idea being: you are the rock, you are the tree, you are the river, you are the grass, etcÃ¢â¬ ¦ The analogy in Ã¢â¬Å"The WorldÃ¢â¬â¢s ReligionsÃ¢â¬ of the first Onondagan to enter college is a wonderful example. Oren Lyons returned to his reservation on his first break from college and went fishing with his uncle. His uncle started to question him, Ã¢â¬Å"Who are you?Ã¢â¬ Oren answered in many ways, Ã¢â¬Å"I am your nephewÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"I am an OnondagenÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"I am a humanÃ¢â¬ and no answer satisfied his uncle. His uncle replied to him, Ã¢â¬Å"Do you see that bluff over there? Oren you are that bluff. And that giant pine on the other shore? Oren, you are that pine. And this water that supports our boat? You are this water. Ã¢â¬ (Smith, 371). Another essential part of Primitivism is the presence of eternal time. Tribal people look toward the future as opposed to the past. Primal time is one that is hard for most people to comprehend, because it is not linear, but is temporal, an eternal now. Its focus is more of a casual sequence rather than a chronological one.
Monday, January 13, 2020
Professional Project Handbook and Guidance 2011/12 The Professional Project Handbook and Guidance Booklet Ã¢â¬â 2011/12 Page 2 The Professional Project Foreword Please may I extend a warm welcome to those students studying the Professional Project (PP). We intend the Project to be a rewarding experience and one which encourages and supports you in your time at Newcastle Business School. This is a demanding element of your programme but one which we hope you will find engaging and helps focus on your future career. Wishing you well in your studies. Regards Dr. Simon Lillystone Module Tutor NX0315 Ã¢â¬â The Professional Project Handbook and Guidance Booklet Ã¢â¬â 2011/12 Page 3 The Professional Project Handbook and Guidance Booklet Ã¢â¬â 2011/12 Page 4 The Professional Project CONTENTS PAGE Page SECTION 1 Ã¢â¬â Introduction 7 SECTION 2 Ã¢â¬â Section A of Project 10 SECTION 3 Ã¢â¬â Section B of Project 11 SECTION 4 Ã¢â¬â Reflective Statement 12 SECTION 5 Ã¢â¬â Written Presentation Format 13 SECTION 6 Ã¢â¬â Reference Specifications and Format 18 SECTION 7 Ã¢â¬â Project Submission Information 20 APPENDIX A Ã¢â¬â Specimen Title page 3 APPENDIX B Ã¢â¬â Specimen Declarations Page 22 APPENDIX C Ã¢â¬â Specimen Contents Page 24 APPENDIX D Ã¢â¬â Ethics in Research & Consultancy (Guidelines & Procedures for Students Undertaking UG Projects) 25 Handbook and Guidance Booklet Ã¢â¬â 2011/12 Page 5 The Professional Project Handbook and Guidance Booklet Ã¢â¬â 2011/12 Page 6 The Professional Project SECTION 1 Ã¢â¬â INTRODUCTION Module Background Information The Professional Project is a 30 point module which will be taken by all direct entry final year students to an undergraduate programme of study at NBS. It counts for 25% of the marks on the final year of the Honours degree and its importance should not be underestimated. The module provides an opportunity to explore the key study competences required to achieve academic success and develop these into employment competences to promote career success. These competences will be developed, practised and written up as part of the Project and applied to an investigation of a business issue/problem. To support this individual investigation into an applied business problem or issue the student will be given a defined topic to research and relevant information relating to the topic. The information will be set in the context of an appropriate academic framework and the student will be expected to draw relevant conclusions, write up and submit the work in an approved format. The target length of the whole project will be 8,000 to 10,000 words. A workshop programme and eLearning Portal will support the process. Learning Outcomes This module is intended to be taken by direct entry final year students to an undergraduate programme of study at NBS. At the end of the module students will be able to: 1. Apply key intellectual competences at level six and critically appraise their employment competences to support continuing professional/career development 2. Conduct a literature review involving the critical evaluation of appropriate theories, models, frameworks and principles and apply those principles to a particular business problem or issue drawing appropriate inferences and conclusions. Aims The Professional Project promotes the development of key competences required to achieve academic and professional career success. These competences will be developed, practised, written up and applied to an investigation of a business issue/problem. The student will be supported in their learning by an eLearning Portal and a workshop programme. The student will be given guidance as to the nature of work to be undertaken in the workshop programme. The module will make use of current research activity related to the chosen subject and, where appropriate, to that specifically carried out by staff of Newcastle Business School. Formative assessment will take place within the contact sessions and may take place through tasks set and theory/practice related discussions including Handbook and Guidance Booklet Ã¢â¬â 2011/12 Page 7 The Professional Project research into career paths. Approaches to Teaching and Learning and Formative Assessment The module is intended to deliver knowledge of and attendance to the competences and abilities for effective study at level six together with entry to and participation within the graduate labour market. It provides an opportunity to undertake a major piece of academic research into a specific business related problem. The module necessitates a broad syllabus where much use will be made of directed study supported by the facilities of the Careers Service, Study Skills Centre and Library. This approach will facilitate the development of students as independent learners. The creation of Learning Sets will be encouraged to facilitate understanding of the issues and problems associated with the completion of the project. The process leading to the completion of the project will include reading, reflection and research. This will be incorporated into the workshop programme which will support the student throughout the process. It is intended that the project will be closely allied to their preferred field of employment. Through the project and workshop activities it is envisaged that students will appreciate the importance of active engagement in competences and career development to improve NBS graduate success in securing appropriate careers or future study opportunities The module is supported by a Learning and Teaching Plan that outlines the formal sessions and by an elearning Portal. The assessment for this module will be an individual project, incorporating the writing up of the student's understanding of personal and professional competence development and an investigation into an applied business problem or issue. The student will be given a defined topic to research and relevant information relating to the topic. The information will be set in the context of an appropriate academic framework and the student will be expected to draw relevant conclusions, write up and submit the work in an approved format. The target length of the whole project will be 8,000 to 10,000 words. The learning outcomes will be achieved through the lecture/workshop programme and will culminate in the completion of the final project. The project will demonstrate the student's understanding of the above learning outcomes. Formative assessment will take place within the workshop sessions and may take place through tasks set and theory/practice related discussions. Workshop Support Programme This is a taught programme with weekly workshops during the first semester followed by six workshops in the second semester. The Project will not be individually supervised. Instead the students will be expected to work in learning sets. However, it must be noted that the final project is to be an individual piece of work. Handbook and Guidance Booklet Ã¢â¬â 2011/12 Page 8 The Professional Project Recommended Reading List for Module Cottrell, S (2008) The Study Skills Handbook 3rd Edn Palgrave MacMillan Basingstoke Armstrong (2005) A Handbook for Leadership and Management: a guide to managing for results. Kogan London Toplis, J. Dulewicz, V. and Fletcher, W. (2005) Psychological Testing Ã¢â¬â a Manager's guide. CIPD London Cameron (2007) The Business Student's Handbook: learning skills for study and employment (available as an e-book) Bolles, RN (2008) What colour is your parachute? A practical manual for job hunters. Ten Speed Publishing Walliman, N (2001) Your Research Project Sage Publications Bell, J (2005) Doing your research project Open University Press Cottrell, S. (2008) Critical Thinking Skills Palgrave Basingstoke Jankowicz,A. D (2005) Business Research Projects Thompson Business Press Remenyi,D, Williams,B, Money,A & Swatz,E (2007) Doing Research in Business and Management Sage Publications Bryman,A & Bell E (2003) Business Research Methods Oxford University Press Price, G. & Maier, P. (2007) Effective Study skills Ã¢â¬â unlock your potential. Pearson Education McMillan, K. Weyers, J. (2009) The Smarter Student Prentice Hall / Pearson London McMillan, K. & Weyers, J. (2007) How to write dissertations & project reports Prentice Hall/ Pearson London Additional Learning Resources (e. g. websites, CD Roms) Blackboard Site The module is supported by the e-learning portal. It is imperative that the site is fully utilised by the students. Certain links t o psychological tests are available under the site which will be used to support the learning process. eLearning platform at Northumbria http://elearning. unn. ac. uk/ Handbook and Guidance Booklet Ã¢â¬â 2011/12 Page 9 The Professional Project SECTION 2 Ã¢â¬â SECTION A OF THE PROJECT The Project is intended to link personal and professional career development with an academic piece of work in the form of a literature review. The appreciation of professional, career and personal development should not be underestimated. It should provide evidence to support that development with critical reflection by the student. A series of psychometric tests are available via BlackBoard to support your self-analysis. The outline of Section A of the project should take the form seen below with supporting evidence shown in the appendices. Part 1: Who I am as a learner? Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Implications for your learning Family & friends to comment Discuss the implications of the questionnaire findings and show how these relate to how you learn. Appendix A Ã¢â¬â VARK, Myers Briggs, Belbin Inventory Part 2: Implications for career choice Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Lifelong learning Transferable skills Justify chosen career choice Discuss how your personality type and how you learn affect your choice of career Appendix B Ã¢â¬â curriculum vitae, two job adverts, a standard application form Appendix C Ã¢â¬â PowerPoint Presentation Handbook and Guidance Booklet Ã¢â¬â 2011/12 Page 10 The Professional Project SECTION 3 Ã¢â¬â TOPIC SELECTION (SECTION B) General topic areas will be defined by the nature of the programme e. g. , those students studying finance would be expected to focus their topic on this area. However, the selection of a final suitable question or issue for Section B of the Project rests with the student. In some cases ideas can be gleaned from many sources. Work placement experiences, aspired career paths, tutor research interests, course work and readings are just a few. Copies of recent projects may suggest ideas as well. Normally projects that are available for inspection have achieved a mark of 60% or more. It is intended that suitable projects will be made available on the Blackboard site. Originality The question or issue needs to be related to business or management or to the specific named degree the student is studying. It is the student's responsibility to verify that the title and the approach of the project are original. However, a student may not claim exclusive rights to a topic area. Guidelines for Suitable Questions The student can assume that the question as initially conceived will evolve as the project progresses. By evolve it is meant that the particular aspect of the question which becomes centred to the project may well change in one direction or another as the project progresses. This evolution or Ã¢â¬Å"fine tuningÃ¢â¬ of a question is quite usual and should be expected. The goal is to find a question which is general enough to be significant, but specific enough to become focused. In any event, the final title as established should not be changed without consent of the Project Supervisor. Handbook and Guidance Booklet Ã¢â¬â 2011/12 Page 11 The Professional Project SECTION 4 Ã¢â¬â REFLECTIVE STATEMENT A vital element of the project is critical reflection by the student. It is important therefore to produce a reflective statement which will link the two sections of the project together. This is a very important area of the project and should be a considered and well thought out element of the final piece of work. The workshops will provide guidance and support on critical reflection as part of the programme. Handbook and Guidance Booklet Ã¢â¬â 2011/12 Page 12 The Professional Project SECTION 5 Ã¢â¬â WRITTEN PRESENTATION FORMAT Length The total length of the project should not exceed 10,000 words. As a general guide Section A of the project should be between 3,000 and 4,000 words while Section B of the project should be between 5,000 and 6,000 words. The word count is to be declared (Appendix B). Summarising and compressing the information in your project into 10,000 words is one of the skills that students are expected to acquire, and demonstrate as part of the project process. The word count does not include abstract, title page, contents page, glossary, tables, appendices and end material. If the project is to be very much shorter (i. e. ess than 8,000 words), it is necessary to clear this in advance of the final deadline with your tutor. Some slippage is acceptable but anything in excess of 11,000 words will be penalised. Referencing It is the student's responsibility to see to it that all ideas, opinions, conclusions, specific wordings, quotations, conceptual structures and data taken directly or indirectly from the work of others and used in the project are appropriately cited and referenced. (THE IMPORTANCE OF PROPER REFERENCING Ã¢â¬â SEE SECTION 7 Ã¢â¬â CANNOT BE OVER EMPHASISED). Structure and Components TABLE OF CONTENTS Title page Declaration and Word Count Abstract (to cover both sections) Acknowledgements Contents Page List of figures Glossary (if appropriate) Section A Part 1: Who I am as a learner? Implications for your learning Family & friends to comment Part 2: Implications for career choice Lifelong learning Transferable skills Handbook and Guidance Booklet Ã¢â¬â 2011/12 Page 13 The Professional Project Justify chosen career choice Appendix A Ã¢â¬â VARK, Myers Briggs, Belbin Inventory Appendix B Ã¢â¬â Curriculum vitae, two job adverts, a standard application form Appendix C Ã¢â¬â PowerPoint Presentation Section B Part 1 Introduction Reason for choice of topic Academic objectives of Project Outline of sections Part 2 Setting the Scene Ã¢â¬â (if required) Part 3 Literature Review Rationale for literature reviewed Critical review of literature relating to academic objectives Part 4 References Bibliography Appendices A B C Reflective Statement Last Page o o It is useful to specify the last page so that the reader may ensure that no pages have been omitted in error. Summary and Conclusions Title Ã¢â¬â The title should be succinct yet clearly specify the content of the report. This should be descriptive and explicit rather than poetic or implicit. Twelve words is normally the maximum length. It should be agreed and finalised as part of the final draft. It may be different from the original proposed title. Acknowledgements Ã¢â¬â The student may wish to thank those people who have been particularly helpful in the preparation of the project. Consideration of persons external to the NBS is particularly appropriate. Facetious acknowledgements are not acceptable. Abstract Ã¢â¬â The purpose of the abstract is to summarise the entire project, including a description of the problem, the student's contributions, and conclusions. Four keywords are required. (See sample Appendix C. ) Handbook and Guidance Booklet Ã¢â¬â 2011/12 Page 14 The Professional Project Declarations and Word Count Ã¢â¬â To be included (See sample Appendix B). Do not forget to sign. No signature: No Mark. Introduction Ã¢â¬â The purpose of this section is to contextualise the study. This means that the significance or importance of the subject is set out. If there is no apparent importance to the study to any external reader, the topic may not be appropriate. Personal interest may inspire selection of the project topic, but ultimately, its mportance to others should be specified. This can often be done by positioning the project in relation to other work that has been published, either as an advancement, continuation, compilation or verification. This part should also tell the reader how the topic will be unfolded and the order of forthcoming material. Literature Review Ã¢â¬â A review of the current literature surrounding the q uestion or issue should provide a clear understanding. It should be up-to-date and relevant. Conclusion Ã¢â¬â This section explains the relationship between the body of knowledge and the question. It should present the case for the project's success in meeting its goals, as well as any shortcomings and limitations that apply. It may suggest further work or study needed on the question or issue, as well as ways the new work can be used or applied in other cases. It is not meant to be a summary or restatement of the entire project, which belongs in the abstract. If the student has developed any strong personal opinions about the subject which seem appropriate to relate, this is the place where such content is appropriate. Appendices Ã¢â¬â Often the concepts of the study can be clarified in graphic form, or data presented in tabular form. Normally, this material should be entered into the text at or near the place it is referred to in the text. Where such material would be inconvenient to include in the text itself, it can be included in an appendix. As a general rule, if figures, tables, charts or quotes are less than a full page and can be conveniently included in the text, you will want to do so, since reference to appendices is awkward for the reader. All such material, in the text or at the end, should be titled and sequentially numbered. Tabular material which is presented in landscape format should be bound with the top of the table to the spine. Appendices are labelled alphabetically, although if there is little such material and it is all of a similar nature, it may all be included in one Appendix. Appendices are referenced in text in parentheses (Appendix A) not (see appendix A). Writing Style The level of writing must be appropriate to the level of the Bachelor's degree. Specifically, acute attention should be paid to correct spelling, grammar, punctuation, sentence structure and clarity of style. Also, it is the student's responsibility to edit the text for typing errors, uncover all spelling errors even if the document is, typed by another party. Note that a spell-check programme does not uncover all spelling errors, e. g. principal v principle. Normally, there should be no first person references (I, we, us) in Section B of the project. If self-reference is required, reference may be made to Ã¢â¬Å"the present authorÃ¢â¬ Handbook and Guidance Booklet Ã¢â¬â 2011/12 Page 15 The Professional Project or Ã¢â¬Å"this studyÃ¢â¬ . The exception to this is in the conclusion section B and Section A, where personal comments may be appropriate. Students from overseas who wish to develop their English style and grammar may wish to make use of the Study Skills Centre. Page Layout Pages should be numbered in sequence at the top right hand corner, starting with and including the title page (Appendix A). Margins and headings: the specifications are 1? Ã¢â¬ left margin, 1? Ã¢â¬ on the other three sides. The page number should be above the top margin line. The right margin should be unjustified (left ragged), since the spacing between words used to make the right margin even inhibits readability greatly, while adding little aesthetically. Headers and footers are to be used with discretion. Please do NOT include your name in any header or footer. Tables and charts should be numbered in sequence by chapter, e. g. Table 3. 1 is the first table in Chapter 3. Each figure should be properly referenced and accompanied by a descriptive title which completely explains the contents of the figure. It is not acceptable to insert photocopies of tables into the body of the project. Tables should be word processed into the project. In broad terms this principle also applies to diagrams Ã¢â¬â no photocopies from books etc. There will, of course, be occasions when a photocopy of a table or a diagram is specifically required in order to illustrate points peculiar to the original. Use of such photocopies must be cleared with the supervisor. Similar principles apply to the appendices with regard to tables and diagrams. It is recognised that there will be circumstances (e. . a project on advertising) where photocopies are necessary. The project must be word-processed, and final copy must be printed single sided on A4 paper. Spacing may either be set at double or one and a half line spacing, depending on the machine used. Spacing greater than double spacing is not acceptable. The body of the project should be in Font size 12 (This is written Font Size 12) or similar. Arial is the pref erred font face. Legibility Both the draft and final copies of the project must be produced in such a manner that the text is entirely legible. This means an image suitable for good reproduction from a photocopier. Colour Printing Handbook and Guidance Booklet Ã¢â¬â 2011/12 Page 16 The Professional Project Black printing is the norm. Colour printing must be used with discretion. There are no extra marks for colour. The University makes no guarantee as to the provision of colour printing facilities. Retention of Working Papers The working documents (e. g. notes, any photocopies of articles used, drafts etc) used for your project MUST be retained by the student until formally notified of the award of their degree. As part of the NBS quality control a stratified sample of students will be asked by letter (after projects have been handed in) to submit their working papers. Please ensure you keep you working papers so that if called for they can be produced. The University tries to be reasonable over this. We do not expect you to keep every scrap of paper. We do expect you to keep the bulk of the important working papers. Thus students would normally (for example) be expected to include in their working papers some (but not necessarily all) successive drafts of the project. Any photocopies of library material etc you use should also be kept. Working Papers MUST be accessible. i. e. DO NOT pack them away in some inaccessible place such as luggage you are shipping home. If your project includes calculations, the working papers for those would be expected. And if your project includes a survey or questionnaire the original papers for those should be kept Ã¢â¬â along with names and addresses of any firms or individuals involved. Keep all computer based material in digital format, CD, etc. Production of Ã¢â¬Å"working papersÃ¢â¬ includes being able to produce the discs. Do not keep material on the hard drive. Failure to produce working papers when requested by the University to do so constitutes an Academic Irregularity, which may adversely affect the awarding of the students' degree. If it is not possible to establish, by inspection of the working papers, the sources of material in the project the award of the degree will be delayed until the matter is resolved. Handbook and Guidance Booklet Ã¢â¬â 2011/12 Page 17 The Professional Project SECTION 6 REFERENCE SPECIFICATIONS AND FORMAT Plagiarism and Citation The intellectual work of others which is being summarised in the report must be attributed to its source. It is assumed that all ideas, opinions, conclusions, specific wordings, quotations, conceptual structures and data, whether reproduced exactly or in paraphrase, which are not referenced to another source is the work of the student. If this is not the case, an act of plagiarism may have occurred, which is cause for disciplinary action at the course or University level. Plagiarism Please pay particular attention to originality and the proper acknowledgement of your sources. It is important that the work you submit: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Is original in as far as the Project constraints allow Ã¢â¬ ¢ Gives proper acknowledgement to any work by others which is used in completing your project Originality means that the project subject is presented in a way which differs from any other: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Published works Ã¢â¬ ¢ Study guides Ã¢â¬ ¢ Projects/Projects of other students, past or present This does not preclude the use of the same material from wider reading (to support it with examples, or relevant opinions and ideas, or to place it within the context of existing knowledge). In fact, credit is specifically given for references in the assessment scheme. It does mean, however, that the sources of any such material MUST be identified. You should ensure that: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Words or phrases taken verbatim from published works are placed in quotation marks and the source acknowledged. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Quotations take the form of brief relevant extracts (only exceptionally exceeding 100 words in length). Where lengthier use of a published work is appropriate, you may summarise or paraphrase an authorÃ¢â¬â¢s words, but the source of the summary or paraphrase must again be fully acknowledged by textual reference. Unacknowledged use of the work of others (plagiarism) is regarded as dishonest practice and will be dealt with on that basis, as per the UniversityÃ¢â¬â¢s Regulations. Format in Text The format for reference styles is laid out in the Northumbria University Library publication Cite Them Right and is available on the UNN Website. Two styles of Handbook and Guidance Booklet Ã¢â¬â 2011/12 Page 18 The Professional Project referencing are defined, the British Standard (Numeric) System and the Harvard System. Please use the Harvard System for your project. A comprehensive discussion on referencing is laid out in the library's publication, which must be followed in detail. The following is a brief sample for illustration only: The Harvard (Name/Date) System uses name and year in text, e. g. According to Steinman (2003) there are three partsÃ¢â¬ ¦ or A recent study (Steinman 2003) states there are three partsÃ¢â¬ ¦ Direct quotes should have author, year and page number. This should be done as (Steinman, 2003:6) or Steinman (2003:6). If a quote crosses over pages you would write (Steinman, 2003:6-7). The purpose of the page reference is to enable the reader to find easily your source material. Particular points should also have page references whereas general themes from a complete article do not require the precise page number. Format in References Section The Harvard (Name/Date) System is listed at the end of the text in alphabetical order by author and date, e. g. Lafferty, B. A and Hult, M. T. (2001) A Synthesis of Contemporary Market Orientation Perspectives, European Journal of Marketing. Vol. 35:no. 12:pp. 2-109 Full specifications and examples are illustrated in the library's monograph. Referencing Electronic sources: e. g. from the World Wide Web should be as follows: PC MAGAZINE. URL: http//www. ziff. com/~ PC Mag/(date of downloading/viewing) (Name, Date (of article), Title) (i. e. as well as any date attached to a document on the web, electronic references should also include the date on which the web was read for the particular source). The citation for non English w orks should follow the same order as English works. For books: author, date, title of book, publisher. For articles: author, date, title of article, title of journal, volume and page numbers. Further details for other electronic referencing are in the Library's monograph Ã¢â¬Å"Cite them RightÃ¢â¬ Handbook and Guidance Booklet Ã¢â¬â 2011/12 Page 19 The Professional Project SECTION 7 Ã¢â¬â PROJECT SUBMISSION INFORMATION Projects are to be submitted to SHAPE UNN Office (room 309C) by no later than 4. 00 PM Friday 23rd March 2012. You must NOT exceed the deadlines given without an approved PEC. In exceptional circumstances late submission of the Project, up to a maximum of 2 weeks, may be sought. These must be approved in advance, with appropriate evidence, and are not meant to cover administrative difficulties. INCLUSION OF A DISK COPY OF THE PROJECT THREE CDs containing a complete copy of the body of the Project (appendices may be omitted as may diagrams within the body of the Project) is to be submitted along with the Project. The title page of the Project must be the first page on the disk. Non submission of a disk, or submission of a corrupt or blank disk will be regarded as an Academic Irregularity. Computer programmes are available which detect changes in grammar and style. The University uses such programmes as an aid in detecting plagiarism. Evidence from such programmes will be used in any disciplinary action taken by the University in cases of alleged plagiarism. Confidentiality This is regarded as an exceptional procedure and this must be agreed by the Tutor [who must be asked to the confidentiality form available on the blackboard site] and declared by the student to Reception on submission. The confidential Project will be pulped. If the confidentiality form is not submitted at hand in the Project will be regarded as non-confidential. It would be prudent to also state that the Project is confidential in footer on each page of the Project. Binding Requirements for Undergraduate Projects All Projects are bound in standard Business School covers. Students are required to submit TWO copies of the completed project. Newcastle Campus Projects submitted at Newcastle campus are submitted bound in standard Business School format. Handbook and Guidance Booklet Ã¢â¬â 2011/12 Page 20 The Professional Project Please note the Declarations statement must be signed and all pages in the correct order before taking the copies of the Project for binding. The procedure is: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Pick up binding materials from SHAPE UNN office. Take the binded copies and CDs along to SHAPE UNN office by no later than 4. 00 pm on or before your hand in date with your Disc. Sign on the submission log sheet at the Reception to signify you had submitted the Project on time. Failed Projects A failed Project may or may not, depending upon the student's overall performance, be re-submitted. That decision is made by the Examination Board. If a student's performance merits a re-submitted Project according to the assessment regulations such that it would enable a student to improve upon the class of degree awarded the University (i. e. Examination Board) will invite the student to re-submit their Project. The student may accept or reject this offer. The Examination Board may direct that a new and unrelated topic be investigated. Any student whose Project falls into this category is so advised via the standard University Examination results letter sent at the end of the summer term. That letter will state whether re-submission is invited or not. Re-submitted Projects are submitted following the same process as described for first submission. The fees payable will be notified to students in their offer to retrieve and students should note that they will need to pay for the binding of this resubmission. Supervision is limited to one 20 minute meeting with the original tutor who will review the problems with the original submission. Mark Disclosure It is impossible for the prospective mark which a Project might achieve to be accurately estimated before a Project is formally marked. Every Project is marked and a sample is moderated. Some are marked a third (or more) time(s) either by External or Internal Examiners. The mark attached to a Project is a result of this process. It is therefore simply not possible for a tutor to give a definitive view as to exactly what standard a Project might reach. This does not, of course, preclude a tutor giving general guidance as to the calibre of the students work, but such guidance should be given and taken with due consideration to the above and can not be considered a binding assurance . Students will receive a copy of the completed assessment sheet following the conclusion of the examination boards. Handbook and Guidance Booklet Ã¢â¬â 2011/12 Page 21 The Professional Project APPENDIX A Proforma Note: This information must fit within the outline shown so that it will be visible through the window in the front cover. Please ensure your family name is in BLOCK CAPITALS NAME This is the position of the window in the front cover sheet Thomas JONES BA (Hons) Business Administration Helen Smith The Ethics of Advertising April 2009 Newcastle DEGREE TUTOR TITLE DATE O CAMPUS STUDENT No: 00/123456 Project submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements of the BA (HONS) BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION of Northumbria University Handbook and Guidance Booklet Ã¢â¬â 2011/12 Page 22 The Professional Project Appendix B DECLARATIONS I declare the following:(1) that the material contained in this Project is the end result of my own work and that due acknowledgement has been given in the bibliography and references to ALL sources be they printed, electronic or personal. (2) the Word Count of this Project is: Section A: Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. Section B: Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. Reflective Statement: Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. Total Word Count: Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. (3) that unless this Project has been confirmed as confidential, I agree to an entire electronic copy or sections of the Project to being placed on Blackboard, if deemed appropriate, to allow future students the opportunity to see examples of past Projects. I understand that if displayed on Blackboard it would be made available for no longer than five years and that students would be able to print off copies or download. The authorship would remain anonymous. 4) I agree to my Project being submitted to a plagiarism detection service, where it will be stored in a database and compared against work submitted from this or any other School or from other institutions using the service. In the event of the service detecting a high degree of similarity between content within the service this will be reported back to my supervisor and second marker, who may decide to undertake further investi gation which may ultimately lead to disciplinary actions, should instances of plagiarism be detected. 5) I have read the University Policy Statement on Ethics in Research and Consultancy and the Policy for Informed Consent in Research and Consultancy and I declare that ethical issues have been considered and taken into account in this research. SIGNED: 1 Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. DATE: Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. 1 Handbook and Guidance Booklet Ã¢â¬â 2011/12 Please remember to sign the declaration before submitting your Project. Page 23 The Professional Project Appendix C TABLE OF CONTENTS Title page Declaration and Word Count Abstract (to cover both sections) Acknowledgements Contents Page List of figures Glossary (if appropriate) Section A Part 1: Who I am as a learner? Implications for your learning Family & friends to comment Part 2: Implications for career choice Lifelong learning Transferable skills Justify chosen career choice Appendix A Ã¢â¬â VARK, Myers Briggs, Belbin Inventory Appendix B Ã¢â¬â Curriculum vitae, two job adverts, a standard application form Appendix C Ã¢â¬â PowerPoint Presentation Section B Part 1 Introduction Reason for choice of topic Academic objectives of the Project Outline of each part Part 2 Part 3 Setting the Scene Ã¢â¬â if required Literature Review Rationale for literature reviewed Critical review of literature relating to academic objectives Part 4 References Bibliography Appendices: Reflective statement Last Page o o It is useful to specify the last page so that the reader may ensure that no pages have been omitted in error. Handbook and Guidance Booklet Ã¢â¬â 2011/12 Page 24 Summary and Conclusions The Professional Project Appendix D Ethics in Research The Northumbria University policy for ethics in research is to be found on the NBS Research Group Blackboard site. Checklist for NBS Students designing and conducting primary research Completely based on secondary data which has previously been published, is desk based and does not involve people in data collection? NO Does your research involve engagement with people in primary data collection? e. g. interview, focus group, questionnaire etc. YES YES There are not normally ethical issues to address. However you should remain ethically aware. Please ensure that you have not breached plagiarism or copyright regulations and have adequately referenced your material Handbook and Guidance Booklet Ã¢â¬â 2011/12 You should not involve children or vulnerable adults in your research (other than authorised exceptions with CRB checks) If researching in an NHS context, please discuss ethical approval with a representative from your workplace and gain advice from your supervisor/School Ethics Sub Committee before proceeding Read the policy on informed consent: http://northumbria. c. uk/static/worddocuments/informe dconsent and gain consent from the organisation and people involved. Use implied, verbal or written consent and complete, where appropriate, an informed consent form (available on Blackboard) Read guidelines and address anonymity/confidentiality in research design and writing up: http://northumbria. ac. uk/static/worddocuments/ethicsp olicy. doc Read guidelines on data protection : http://northumbria. ac. uk/sd/central/uso/ndp/nudpp Ensure that you have NOT used inducements to obtain participants Page 25
Sunday, January 5, 2020
A Rose for Emily is a short story by William Faulkner published in 1930. Set in Mississippi, the story takes place in a changing Old South and revolves around the curious history of Miss Emily, a mysterious figure. As a part of the title, the rose serves as an important symbol, and understanding the symbolism of the title is necessary for analyzing the text. Death The onset of the story reveals that Miss Emily has died and the whole town is at her funeral. Thus, going off the title, the rose must play a role in or symbolize aspects of Emilys life story.Ã Starting with the practical, the rose is probably a flower at Miss Emilys funeral. Thus, mentions of roses play a part in establishing a funeral setting. On the theme of death, Miss Emily is unwilling to let go of the dying antebellum period. Trapped as she is in that past, a ghostly remnant of her former self, she expects everything to stay the same.Ã Like the decaying Old South, Emily lives with decaying bodies. Instead of life, laughter, and happiness, she can only bear stagnation and emptiness. There are no voices, no conversations, and no hope. Love, Intimacy, and Heartbreak The rose is also generally viewed as a symbol of love. The flower is associated with Venus and Aphrodite, goddesses of beauty and romance, respectively, in classical mythology. Roses are often given for romantic occasions like weddings, dates, Valentines Day, and anniversaries. Thus, perhaps the rose can be related to Emilys love life or her desire for love.Ã However, the rose is also a prickly flower that can pierce the skin if youre not careful. Emily, like a thorny rose, keeps people at a distance. Her haughty demeanor and isolated lifestyle do not allow any other townspeople to get close to her. Also like a rose, she proves to be dangerous. The only person who does get significantly close to her, Homer, she murders. Emily sheds blood, the same color as the red petals of a rose.Ã The rose might also have been part of Miss Emilys bridal bouquet if Homer had married her. A certain fragility and tragedy characterize the realization that simple happiness and beauty might have been hers.
Friday, December 27, 2019
Conflict: The Boko Haram Insurgency Type of Conflict: Hot war. Origins Boko Haram is the nickname for the group officially known in Arabic as Jama atu Ahlis Sunna Lidda awati Wal-Jihad--the People Committed to the Propagation of the Prophet s Teachings and Jihad. Named by the Northern Nigerian Muslims and subsequently picked up by the press, the name Boko Haram translates to Western education is forbidden and is derived from the teachings of Mohammed Yusuf, the group s early leader, who claimed that western style education and the holding of government jobs are religiously forbidden, or haram, under Islam. Mohammed Yusuf founded the sect in 2002 in Maiduguri, the capital of the north-eastern state of Borno. He established a religious complex and school that attracted poor Muslim families from across Nigeria and neighbouring countries. The center had the political goal of creating an Islamic state, and became a recruiting ground for individuals wanting to participate in jihad. By denouncing the police and state corruption, Yusuf attracted followers from unemployed adults to poverty-stricken youths. He is reported to have used the existing infrastructure in Borno of the Izala Society, a popular conservative Islamic sect, to recruit members, before breaking away to form his own faction. Officially, Boko Haram wants to establish an Islamic state in Nigeria and the introduction of Sharia law. But it isn t that simple. Injustice and poverty, as well as the belief thatShow MoreRelatedWhy Is Boko Haram?1625 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesoperations of Boko Haram have shattered the hope that peace is returning to AfricaÃ¢â¬â¢s most populous country any time soon (Ã¢â¬Å"Boko HaramÃ¢â¬ ). Nigeria is a West African country with a population of about 170 million people. It is a country divided with religion and ethnicity. The country is made up of both Muslims and Christians, with an area called the middle belt bordering the Muslim north and Christian south (Ehwarieme). For many decades, Nigeria has witnessed various forms of violent conflicts. In recentRead MoreBoko Haram - Location And Duration1794 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pages Location and Duration The Boko Haram conflict is currently taking place in Nigeria, with some minor ongoing activity in western Chad, southeast Niger and northern Cameroon. Though the group is concentrated in the northeastern states of Borno and Yobe in Nigeria, its influence has spread throughout the country. The current insurgency officially began on July 26th, 2009, and while Nigerian President Muhammadu Buharu declared the conflict Ã¢â¬ËtechnicallyÃ¢â¬â¢ over in December 2015, the violence continuesRead MoreThe Effects Of Social Media On Boko Haram Insurgency Essay3548 Words Ã |Ã 15 PagesTHE EFFECT OF SOCIAL MEDIA ON BOKO-HARAM INSURGENCY IN NIGERIA AUGUST, 2015 CHAPTER ONE 1.0 INTRODUCTION Terrorism is globally becoming a household word as there is no nation that is completely absolved from its effect. Globalization has significantly influenced the spate of terrorism as the event in one part of the globe has direct or an indirect effect on others. This explains why Horne (2002) in Rourke (2008) observes that war, terrorism and other forms of transnational politicalRead MoreThe Conflict Between The Muslims And The North1361 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesthe British did by colonizing territories from Sahel to the Atlantic coast, started the main cause of conflict between the Muslims and the Christians. It led to political disagreement between the two major religions in two separate regions of the country. In the years 1947 to 1959, the Nigerian leaders came together to try to come to an agreement to resolve the political and religious conflicts between the north (Muslims) and the south (Christians). Christians believe that if Nigeria is governedRead MoreChristian Persecution in Nigeria790 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesMuslim extremists in (mainly) northern Nigeria is and has been a serious problem for several years. The main contributors to this issue are the Islamic extremist and Muslim purist organization, Boko Haram. According to Religion Today, over 3000 people have been killed since Boko Haram began itÃ¢â¬â¢s insurgency. Murders and jihads are a regular occurrence in Nigeria, with new reports seemingly coming out every day of another terrorist attack or mass shooting. With government being unsupportive of ChristiansRead MoreBoko Haram : Political System Essay1964 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesBoko Haram has been terrorizing Nigeria and surrounding countries for years, with noticeable increase s in power over the last five years. Best estimates indicate that the Boko Haram insurgency rose to power in the 2000s with the goal of promoting strict adherence to Islamic ShariÃ¢â¬â¢a Law throughout Nigeria (Bussey, Chasse, Martin, 2016). The group found footing quickly; frustrations with the faulty political system and lack of economic and social development in northern Nigeria allowed the group toRead MoreThe Conflict Of A Social Movement780 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe conflict in Nigeria is yet another example of an ongoing war which has targeted women and girls. The Islamic extremist insurgency group, Boko Haram, is waging war against the Nigerian government and has taken the use of women in conflict to an unprecedented level with the kidnapping of women and girls for sexual enslavement and to carry out suicide attacks (Amnesty International, 2015). The issue was brought to the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s attention when 276 girls were kidnapped from the Nigerian village of ChibokRead More Boko Haram Is The Elusive Master Mind Behind The Islamic State2063 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesThe group, Boko Haram, was created 14 years ago by Mohammed Yusuf (1970-2009) to create and pure Islamic state in Nigeria. With the development in technology over the last ten years the internet has become a freeway of information. This has created the perfect opportunity for terrorist groups to blossom and spread their messages to lands far away from their previous reach. Mohammed Yusuf Ideals were focused on making Nigeria a Ã¢â¬Å"pure Islamic StateÃ¢â¬ . In 2009 police found and killed him which with mediaRead MoreThe Threat Of Boko Haram Essay1595 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages855). Although Boko Haram is categorized as a terrorist organization, it remains difficult to define terrorism itself under international law. With the rising of nationalist movements after the World War II in the old empires of the European powers, modern terrorism has accelerated and generated publicity for its causes and influenced global policy. While no one has yet agreed upon a definition of terrorism, many see in terrorism an effective means of transforming local conflicts into internationalRead MoreConflict and Social Change: a Case Study of Boko Haram Insurgence in Nigeria3843 Words Ã |Ã 16 PagesCONFLICT AND SOCIAL CHANGE: A CASE STUDY OF THE BOKO HARAM INSURGENCE IN NIGERIAÃ Dedication This work is dedicated to all those who have lost their lives as a result of the activities of the Boko Haram sect. Ã Acknowledgement I am so grateful to the Almighty God for giving me the grace needed to present this term paper. May all honour and thanksgiving be ascribed unto They name in Jesus name. I will also fail to register my ineffable gratitude to my lecturer, Mrs Ayogu for guiding me throughout